Governance

Transparency for Effectiveness

Dialogue creates more than just verbal ties, but also common destinies.

Transparency for Effectiveness

To ensure no one is left behind, the Government of Egypt has set a targeted approach to openness, transparency and participation, through constructive dialogue with all stakeholders, including civil society in the sphere of development cooperation. The Ministry of International Cooperation aims to shift mindsets through ‘Economic Diplomacy’ through its three key principles: 1) Multi-Stakeholder Platforms 2) ODA SDG Mapping Framework 3) Global Partnerships Narrative. These principles aim to ensure that development financing is more accountable and effective by enabling stakeholders to have access to comprehensive information on ODA initiatives and opportunities to engage on its programs, playing a key role in mobilising resources to support the SDGs.

Reform as an Imperative

In its continuous efforts to implement reforms, the Ministry of International Cooperation announced the new senior-staff team, initiating a new structure to optimize resources and procedures to enhance efforts under the Ministry's Economic Diplomacy.

Together, in a collective effort, the team brings to the table imagination and innovation, designing a modern modus operandi to further develop and strengthen cooperation between Egypt and its multilateral and bilateral partners. This culture of open governance is based on innovative and sustainable practices inspired by accountability, commitment and transparency that fosters sustainable and inclusive growth.

People at the Core

Transparency in development projects through the “External Debt Management Committee” helps to create an environment in which information on the objectives, frameworks, rationale and accountability is provided to all stakeholders in a comprehensible, accessible and timely manner. The External Debt Management Committee, established by the Prime Minister, manages external borrowing in coordination with the Ministries of International Cooperation, Finance, Planning and Economic Development and the Central Bank of Egypt.

The Mandate of the External Debt Management Committee is the effective and sustainable management of external debt and maintain a competitive credit rating of Egypt through setting an annual ceiling for external borrowing (exceptions possible pending the committee approval), receiving financing needs of ministries and national entities accompanied with feasibility studies on the estimated cost and consistent with the national objectives, identifying the financing gap and sources of finance to be provided externally. The gap is either financed through ODA or Commercial Loans.

The main procedures of ODA Loan Request are as follows

1. Ministries and national entities submit the request of financing to the External Debt Management Committee with preliminary feasibility studies including the estimated cost and the potential impact and consistent with the national objectives

2. Upon the Committee's approval of financing projects through ODA, the Ministry of International Cooperation is approached to secure financing

3. The Ministry of International Cooperation studies the financing requests submitted, determines the appropriate development partner, and negotiates the most suitable financing terms, taking into account the degree of sectoral concentration and diversification of the international cooperation portfolio, technical support and grants required, complementarity with existing projects.

Open Dialogue with Stakeholders

Communicating with openness, accuracy and transparency deepens our understanding of the challenges we face and the solutions that we can offer.

The Ministry of International Cooperation co-hosted the ‘Development Partners Group’ meeting in November 2020 with the United Nations and representatives from development partners. The DPG meeting aims to harness and harmonize the development efforts of all diverse actors involved in development – government, development partners, private sector, and civil society and pave the road to effective and transparent cooperation.

Projects in Action

In 2020, the Ministry secured $68 million in governance from cooperation with USAID, the World Bank, China, and Spain. SDG 16: Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions includes 32 projects making up for $240 million and 0.9% of total ODA financing.

The Comprehensive Picture

Egypt scored the highest implementation of a national reporting platform for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 50% in the region, as reported by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA). To promote engagement and open dialogue on progress, the Ministry of International Cooperation has institutionalized regular monitoring of ODA financed projects at all stages of the project cycle to review projects’ performance and implement corrective actions.

Digital Storytelling

Digital and social media platforms pose an opportunity for effective and purposeful development communication; as they provide the means to document the physical results of development projects across the country.

People connect to the powerful storytelling showcasing the impact of development financing on ground. The Global Partnerships Narrative Strategic Ecosystem; plays an important role in streamlining development cooperation efforts under one umbrella of mindful mobilization; and through the MoIC Narrative Task Force with members of the Development Partners community, create a variety of messaging to engage stakeholders through “pitch, plunge and play” content adopting to a shared vision and language for collaboration.

Purpose as the Driver

Together with all development partners, the Ministry of International Cooperation calls for a "new era" of cooperation championing effective development cooperation, nurturing transparency, open dialogue and governance.

This ‘new era’ is tech-based, harnesses the meteoric rise of digital and social media and is built on powerful storytelling and prefers two-way communication where we collectively inform, and engage the people.

Here are a few of the targets being met:

Goal 16 (Target 16.3)

Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all.

Goal 16 (Target 16.6)

Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels.

Goal 16 (Target 16.7)

Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels

Goal 16 (Target 16.A)

Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime.

Goal 17 (Target 17.6)

Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism.

Goal 17 (Target 17.7)

Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as agreed.

Goal 17 (Target 17.8)

Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology.

Goal 17 (Target 17.16)

Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi- stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular developing countries.

Stakeholder Engagement through Economic Diplomacy

To document the experience of the Arab Republic of Egypt in launching a framework for international cooperation and development financing, the Ministry of International Cooperation launched the book “Stakeholder Engagement through Economic Diplomacy” from the London School of Economics. The book that was launched is the first of its kind that works to document Egypt’s experience in international cooperation and development finance.

The launch of the book “Stakeholder Engagement through Economic Diplomacy” through the London School of Economics, with high-level participation from distinguished economists around the world, is an unprecedented documentation and international presentation of the Egyptian experience in the field of international cooperation and development financing, and a recognition of Egyptian leadership in the level of consolidation and inauguration of the principles of economic diplomacy. Moreover, this is also  a reference for emerging and developing countries to benefit from the Egyptian experience in the field of international cooperation.

Objectives of launching the book, which is the first of its kind that documents Egypt’s experience in the field of international cooperation and development financing: -

  1. The book documents the pioneering experience of the Arab Republic of Egypt In launching an institutional framework for economic diplomacy based on three pillars aimed at advancing international cooperation mechanisms and development financing to achieve sustainable development goals.
  2. List the efforts undertaken by the Arab Republic of Egypt And the methodologies developed by the Ministry of International Cooperation to align projects funded by multilateral and bilateral development partners with the United Nations goals for sustainable development.
  3. Discussing the practical application of these methodologies through the development financing matching map With the UN goals for sustainable development, available on the website of the Ministry of International Cooperation.
  4. Highlighting the role that the private sector can play to enhance the state’s development plans, How can international partnerships with multilateral and bilateral development partners advance and stimulate this role?
  5. Documenting this experience through the London School of Economics and in cooperation with development partners To become a model available to developing and emerging countries to benefit from the Egyptian experience and to represent a national contribution to international efforts to advance progress towards achieving sustainable development goals.

To view the book

https://www.lse.ac.uk/africa/Assets/Documents/Stakeholder-Engagement-through-Economic-Diplomacy.pdf 

The Automated Information Management System (AIMS)

The international cooperation experience in Egypt is based on the main principles of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation (GPEDC), which reflect transparency and accountability. The Ministry of International Cooperation launched the  Automated Information Management System (AIMS), an electronic system for managing data and following up on projects funded by development partners, within the framework of the country’s commitment towards a digital transformation and to promote the principles of international cooperation. Transparency and governance of development cooperation efforts with multilateral and bilateral development partners.

The new system is the first of its kind, and is a mechanism for linking and unifying data related to development cooperation agreements, projects and programs with development partners, in order to ensure the availability of relevant information at all levels between the Ministry and all national agencies, in a way that enhances their role in the follow-up and evaluation process and support decision-making. It also enhances the follow-up of the financial and technical performance of projects funded by multilateral and bilateral development partners, extracting periodic reports for decision-makers, and sharing data with project-related entities.

The system comes to complement the governance and transparency system developed by the Ministry of International Cooperation, through the principles of economic diplomacy, to maximize the returns from development cooperation efforts, and achieve comprehensive and sustainable development, through effective communication with various relevant parties, whether development partners or parties and nationals, to ensure that financing development is more effective and measurable by enabling stakeholders to access information about the implemented programs and available opportunities.

Development financing packages for the governance sector during 2020-2023

From 2020 to 2023, the Ministry of International Cooperation concluded non-refundable grant agreements worth $276 million to finance various governance programs implemented by the state in many sectors. The United States of America, the European Union, the World Bank, and Germany contributed to providing these grants, as well as South Korea, and others. These grants contribute to the implementation of many programs, including the Comprehensive Economic Governance Program, supporting e-government and innovation in public administration, the Trade and Investment Stimulation Agreement in Egypt (TIPE), and the Risk Management Mechanisms Program in Egypt.

Partnerships and Advancing Multilateral Cooperation

From 2020 to 2023, the strength of partnerships emerged in all aspects of the Ministry of International Cooperation’s work with development partners, and since the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and the global crises and challenges that followed, the Ministry of International Cooperation has worked to promote multilateral cooperation, with all partners, and engaging in intensive discussions and ongoing consultations to update strategies with development partners with the participation of relevant parties, based on three main factors that are consistent with global changes; inclusivity, green transition and the digital transformation.

Partnership with the United Nations: Leaving No One Behind

The Arab Republic of Egypt and the United Nations have a close and long-standing relationship dating back to the founding of the United Nations in 1945. It was one of the 51 founding member states of the United Nations, and has played a leading role in the organization ever since, and the country has also been a strong supporter of the United Nations’ development goals. In 2016, it launched its Vision 2030, which sets out long-term development goals for the country in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

After the successful implementation of the Strategic Framework for Partnership with the United Nations (UNPDF) 2018-2022, H.E. Dr. Rania A. Al-Mashat, Minister of International Cooperation, and Elena Panova, United Nations Resident Coordinator in Egypt, on May 9, 2023, signed the Strategic Framework for Cooperation between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the United Nations. for Sustainable Development (UNSDCF) for the period 2023-2027, where the signing ceremony was witnessed by the Prime Minister, H.E. Dr. Mostafa Madbouly, a number of dignitaries, relevant ministers, representatives of international financial institutions, the private sector, civil society, the House of Representatives and the Senate, in addition to other entities.

The UNSDCF is a major tool for planning and implementing programs and development cooperation projects between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the United Nations in Egypt. Its time frame is consistent with Egypt's Vision 2030, national sector strategies, the cooperation framework for Egypt's sustainable development strategy, and the priorities identified in key policies, initiatives and international human rights conventions.

The preparation for this framework included a broad process of national consultations and coordination at the sector level over a period of nearly two years, led by the Minister of International Cooperation and the United Nations Resident Coordinator in Egypt, as co-chairs of the Steering Committee. The consultation process began since the launch of the road map in May 2021, and witnessed the participation of many parties, and many workshops were held, with all relevant parties, including more than 40 national partners, 28 international partners, the Permanent Mission of Egypt to the United Nations in New York, the private sector, development partners, and non-governmental organizations, which have a major role. In reaching all community groups most in need. Academia and think tanks.

By 2027, it is expected to achieve national development goals consistent with the Sustainable Development Goals through four strategic priorities included in the new framework.

The first strategic priority: Providing high-quality services to all, achieving social peace and improving human capital that focuses on youth and children.

Second strategic priority: Inclusive, competitive, diversified, environmentally sustainable and knowledge-based economic transformation.

The third strategic priority: Sustainable management of natural resources to achieve food security and the ability to adapt to climate change.

Fourth strategic priority: Transparency, good governance and the rule of law.

Egypt's Cooperation with the World Bank Group

The Arab Republic of Egypt is one of the founding countries of the World Bank, and the third largest shareholder in the Middle East and North Africa region. The World Bank is one of Egypt's most important development partners, as it began supporting the development program in 1959. Since then, the World Bank has financed 175 projects, with a total of nearly $26 billion in many important sectors, including infrastructure, human capital, and public sector reforms. Providing services and developing the private sector, these projects work to build institutions and achieve economic reforms and sustainable development to ensure that future generations have the necessary tools for success and improve the quality of life for Egyptians.

Cooperation between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the World Bank is not limited to financing development. Rather, issuing diagnostic and analytical reports is one of the most prominent areas of cooperation between Egypt and the World Bank in order to develop clear visions for the economy and analyze the current situation. During the past year, the Climate and Development Report (CCDR) was launched, which specifies the procedures At the level of policies and investment opportunities that, if implemented within 5 years, could lead to increasing the efficiency of use and allocation of natural resources, reducing the effects of climate change on citizens, companies, and business institutions, and enhancing Egypt’s ability to compete in global markets.

In line with the state’s vision and efforts to empower the private sector and expand the base of its participation in achieving development, work is being done with the institutions affiliated with the World Bank Group, namely the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), to enhance investments for the private sector in various priority development areas and enhance Green finance.

On March 21, 2023, the Board of Executive Directors of the World Bank Group approved a new Strategic Partnership Framework for Egypt for the fiscal years 2023-2027, consistent with the Egyptian Government’s Sustainable Development Strategy, “Egypt Vision 2030,” and the National Climate Change Strategy 2050. On May 8, it was launched The strategy was officially launched to begin a new chapter in our partnership for cooperation on various issues and areas of development to promote a comprehensive and sustainable future for the next five years.

Through the new strategic partnership framework, Egypt, in cooperation with the World Bank, is working to advance its national priorities and mobilize resources, technical expertise, and knowledge to implement targeted initiatives that will enhance infrastructure, education, health care, and job opportunities. This multilateral approach is effective in promoting comprehensive and equitable development, leading to social and economic development in Egypt and improving the quality of life for its citizens.

With a focus on citizens, the new Strategic Partnership Framework for 2023-2027 is a strategic document that outlines the World Bank Group’s support for Egypt’s development priorities over the next five years. The Strategic Partnership Framework focuses on three main areas:

(First) Increasing decent job opportunities in the private sector by creating and supporting an enabling environment for sector-led investments, which reflects positively on the availability of appropriate and sustainable opportunities for a competitive and empowered workforce capable of adapting to the requirements of the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

(Second) Enhancing investment in human capabilities and improving human capital outcomes in all governorates by supporting and providing distinguished services without discrimination in different sectors, such as health, education, transportation, and housing, in addition to providing effective, comprehensive, and equitable social protection programs.

(Third) Strengthening resilience to shocks by improving macroeconomic management and enhancing capabilities to adapt to climate change, explaining that the framework includes two interconnected pillars to support those goals, namely empowering women and girls and enhancing participatory governance and transparency.


European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)

At the beginning of 2022, the joint country strategy was launched between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development for the period 2022-2027, with the aim of stimulating joint efforts with the Bank to support development through 3 pillars:

Supporting the country’s efforts to achieve comprehensive and sustainable economic growth.

Accelerating the transition towards a green economy.

Enhancing competitiveness, increasing growth rates, and stimulating the role of the private sector in development.

The bank’s investment portfolio within the framework of the partnership between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has exceeded about €10 billion in 163 projects since Egypt became a country of operations in 2012, and the private sector has accounted for 78% of these investments. For the past five consecutive years, from 2018 to 2022, Egypt was the largest country in terms of operations in the southern and eastern Mediterranean region, which reflects the importance of the partnership and its role in driving economic growth.

Furthermore, the EBRD has contributed to diversifying Egypt's energy mix with a commitment to finance an additional 1.6 GW of installed renewable energy capacity and an expected reduction of 8,303 kilotonnes in CO2 emissions (equivalent to emissions resulting from the electricity use of approximately 1.4 million homes). Or the world consuming more than 17 million barrels of oil).

European Investment Bank (EIB)

In light of the relationship with the European Union, a new partnership framework was developed with the European Investment Bank for the period 2021-2027, which enhances areas of joint cooperation, especially in the sectors of health, education, environment, energy, water treatment, transportation, agriculture, and supply, and stimulates joint work with the private sector, within the framework of the “Team Europe” initiative, through which it targets the European Commission and the European Union’s Neighborhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument, with the aim of stimulating the green transition and enhancing sustainable development efforts.

The EIB is the only bank that represents the interests of EU countries, and works closely with other EU institutions to implement policies; The current cooperation portfolio with the European Investment Bank amounts to €3.5 billion to finance 20 development projects in various sectors, including the transport and sanitation sectors.

The Ministry of International Cooperation, in coordination with national authorities, is working to implement the new cooperation strategy 2021-2027 in priority areas. The new strategy is of great importance for Egypt to enhance the transition towards a green economy, especially in light of the European Investment Bank’s commitment to allocate investments for climate action and green recovery. In light of its selection as Europe's climate bank.

The development financing that the Bank made available to the Egyptian private sector during the period from 2020 until the first half of 2023 amounted to about €2.36 billion, in various development fields, to empower the private sector and increase its role in achieving comprehensive and sustainable development, including €662 million in the first half of 2023. For banks, equity funds and private sector companies. The bank is also scheduled to make available, within the framework of the new strategy, about €4 billion for the NWFE program projects and other projects in Egypt.

Cooperation with the European Union

Through cooperation between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the European Union, we are working to maximize the use of development financing to support national priority projects in various sectors, most notably: health and food security, sanitation and the environment, in addition to strengthening the partnership with the European Union in clean energy and green hydrogen.

The current cooperation portfolio with the European Union amounts to approximately €1.3 billion to finance several development projects in various sectors, including health, environment, wastewater treatment, clean and renewable energy, and gender equality.

The future cooperation document between Egypt and the European Union for the period 2021-2027 was approved in June 2022, to enhance cooperation between the two sides for the coming period. In light of this, the Ministry of International Cooperation chaired the subcommittees “Transport, Environment and Energy” and “Information and Communications Society, Scientific Research, Innovation and Education.” and Culture", in Luxembourg during the months of February and March 2023, to determine cooperation priorities during the coming period, based on existing cooperation with the European Union in the areas of renewable energy, environment, social protection, food security, water resources management, and sustainable transport.

Germany

The ongoing development cooperation portfolio between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Federal Republic of Germany amounts to approximately 1.6 €billion, through which 30 projects have been financed in the form of loans, technical support grants, and financial contributions. Many sectors have benefited from this portfolio, including energy efficiency, renewable energy, sanitation, and irrigation. Water support, solid waste management, migration, labor market, private sector innovation, technical education, vocational training, urban development, administrative reform, women, youth and social development.

Egyptian-German government negotiations were held under the chairmanship of the Ministry of International Cooperation in December 2022 to determine the future cooperation framework until 2024, through which development funds, grants and debt swaps worth €370.8 million will be made available to finance 16 development projects in the sectors: technical education, vocational training, and supporting innovation in the sector. Private sector, labor market, administrative reform, governance, urban development, energy efficiency, renewable energy, sanitation and agriculture. Among these funds, €258 million are scheduled to be allocated in the form of concessional development financing, grants and debt swaps to support the energy pillar within the NWFE programme.

The implementation of the debt swap program with Germany began in 2011 at a value of €240 million, and so far the first and second phases have been implemented, at a value of €160 million, and the third phase at a value of €90 million has been implemented.

Cooperation with Italy

Bilateral cooperation relations between Egypt and Italy became active after the signing of the economic cooperation protocol between the two countries in 1975. The areas of cooperation vary in multiple fields, including infrastructure, health care, environment, small and medium enterprises, and medium industries. Egyptian-Italian cooperation is divided into bilateral cooperation, the Egyptian-Italian debt swap program, in addition to the goods import program.

Through joint cooperation mechanisms, Italy, under the bilateral cooperation program, provides grants and concessional development financing to Egypt. The bilateral cooperation portfolio between the two countries for ongoing projects amounts to about €42.9 million, in the following various fields, which constitute a priority between the two governments: trade and industry, developing small and medium enterprises, and supporting the agricultural sector, environment, cultural heritage, and education, in addition to social development, empowering women, and supporting the health sector.

Preparations are currently being made to begin implementing the “Supporting the Egyptian Private Sector” project, which is scheduled to be financed with soft financing worth €45 million for the benefit of the Ministry of Trade and Industry, and preparations are also being made to provide soft financing and grants within the framework of the bilateral cooperation program.

In addition, the debt swap program is one of the main programs for cooperation with Italy. The implementation of the first phase of the debt swap program for development with Italy, the first phase, began in 2001, during which 54 projects were implemented, and the second phase was signed in 2007 and witnessed the implementation of 32 projects. Then the third and final phase in 2012, during which a number of projects are being implemented. The total amount of the three phases is about $350 million. Through it, many projects have been implemented.

Last May, an agreement was signed to extend the work of the third tranche until 2024 with the Italian ambassador to implement many projects. At the top of these projects, in the food security sector, is the project “Establishing field silos and an information technology system for wheat management” at a value of 416.7 million pounds, and the second phase of the “Development of fish farming in Egypt” project at a value of 138.9 million pounds, and in the environment sector. Financing the third phase of the “Solid Waste Management in Minya Governorate” project at a value of 70.5 million pounds.


Egyptian-French relations

On May 30, 2022, the new country strategy between Egypt and the French Development Agency was launched until 2025, entitled “For Shared Prosperity,” with the aim of making the most of international partnerships and development financing to support the National Development Vision 2030. The French Development Agency is the culmination of a prosperous phase of joint relations, and the expanded dialogue that has taken place between the Agency and the Ministry of International Cooperation since the beginning of 2019, with the aim of supporting the government’s development priorities, and providing development financing and technical support for various projects.

The joint country strategy until 2025 aims to present a vision for the partnership capable of aligning the goals and priorities of the French Development Agency for North Africa 2020-2024, with the sustainable development priorities of the Egyptian government identified in Egypt Vision 2030, in addition to the priority areas that have been developed in the national strategic documents, including: This includes the Egyptian government’s work program for 2023-2027, the Africa Agenda 2063, and the “Decent Life” presidential initiative, as well as the 2030 UN Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Climate Agreement, which will stimulate the green transformation in Egypt. The strategy is being implemented in close coordination with Proparco, the private sector financing arm. For the group, and with Expertise France, which is responsible for technical cooperation.

During the visit of the French Minister of Economy and Finance, Mr. Bruno Le Maire, in June 2021, an agreement was signed between the Egyptian and French governments to contribute to financing priority development projects in Egypt, in light of the 2021-2025 strategy, with a value of €1.76 billion; Including €776 million from the French Treasury and €990 million from the French Development Agency.

It is worth noting that since the signing of the framework between the government and the French Development Agency in 2006, the agency has provided more than €3 billion in concessional development financing to the government and private sectors, in addition to €12.6 million in the form of grants. It also manages EU grants worth €150 million to finance projects in the environment, housing, energy, transport, agriculture, small and medium enterprises, health and monuments.

Moreover, the total economic cooperation portfolio between Egypt and France since 1974 until now has reached €7.5 billion, through more than 42 cooperation protocols in various sectors, including transportation, electricity, civil aviation, housing, sanitation, health, agriculture, irrigation, and small and medium enterprises. environment, antiquities, and basic and technical education, while the current development cooperation portfolio amounts to about €1.8 billion.

Switzerland

Within the framework of Egyptian-Swiss cooperation, future projects are being discussed that enhance the state’s efforts in the sectors of technical and vocational training, as well as agriculture and food security. Switzerland has provided support efforts for refugees in Egypt in the wake of the crisis in Sudan, amounting to about $4.8 million.

Currently, talks are underway regarding a joint cooperation program between the Egyptian and Swiss sides for the period 2025-2028, which will continue along the lines of the current Swiss cooperation program 2021-2024, which addresses governance, human rights, green growth, youth skills development, protection issues, and migration. In this regard, the Minister of International Cooperation pointed out the importance of organizing sessions and workshops in coordination between the Ministry of International Cooperation and the Swiss Embassy that includes all concerned parties from both sides to discuss future cooperation programs and agree on priorities that meet development requirements, stressing the importance of strengthening national priorities related to the localization of industry and supporting the efforts of the health sector. and population within the framework of various national strategies.

Austria

The history of economic cooperation between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Republic of Austria dates back to 1975 when the two countries signed an agreement for economic and technical cooperation. Following Austria's accession to the European Union, a new agreement for economic and technical cooperation was signed in 1996, within which two sessions of the Egyptian-Austrian joint committee were held in 2001 and 2005, and the two committees resulted in the signing of a protocol that includes the most important things that were agreed upon between the two parties regarding the development of economic and technical cooperation relations. And aspects of future cooperation.

On the sidelines of the Egyptian-Austrian Business Forum, which Cairo hosted in April 2023, Dr. Mostafa Madbouly, Prime Minister, and Karl Nehammer, Federal Chancellor of the Republic of Austria, witnessed the signing ceremony of a letter of intent regarding enhancing economic cooperation between Egypt and the Federal Ministry of Labor and Economy of the Republic of Austria, through The Joint Economic Committee, within the framework of the strong bilateral economic relations between Egypt and Austria, and the desire to increase economic cooperation. The letter of intent was signed by H.E. Dr. Rania A. Al-Mashat, Minister of International Cooperation, and Ambassador Peter Lönski Tiefenthal, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Austria.

African Development Bank

During the activities of the second session of the Egypt- International Cooperation Forum (Egypt-ICF) in September 2022, the joint country strategy between the government and the African Development Bank 2022-2026 was launched, which comes within the framework of fruitful and extended cooperation between the two sides after a period of consultations that lasted over two years. With the aim of identifying priority areas for joint action to enhance regional integration, based on two main pillars:

Enhancing the competitiveness of the Egyptian economy to support private sector-led growth

Strengthening resilience in the food, water and energy security sectors

Since the launch of the new cooperation framework in 2022, the partnership between the two sides has been strengthened according to two main pillars as follows: -

The first pillar: Supporting the private sector through the Bank of Egypt, where a credit guarantee was provided to the Ministry of Finance to issue panda bonds in the Chinese yuan. The proceeds will be used to implement national projects targeting environmentally friendly projects

The second pillar: The electricity and green growth support program amounted to €83 million, the food security and economic resilience support program amounted to $271 million, the third phase of the Jabal al-Asfar wastewater treatment plant amounted to €110 million, and the financing of the second phase of preparing studies on the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Victoria amounted to $2 million.


United Kingdom

Within the framework of the close relations between Egypt and the United Kingdom, more than £50 million was provided during the period between 2016 and 2020 to support comprehensive and sustainable development in Egypt, in addition to guaranteeing a loan from the World Bank to Egypt worth $150 million. Support focuses on inclusive economic growth, education, youth, social development and regional cooperation; This includes £12 million to support basic education reforms in Egypt, targeting marginalized communities, according to the UK-Egypt Joint Statement on Economic Cooperation.

Furthermore, the UK is one of the largest investors in Egypt, having invested $48 billion across all sectors, including oil and gas, telecommunications, pharmaceuticals and fast-moving consumer goods. Egypt and the United Kingdom established the British Investors Forum to encourage investment in Egypt.

During the year 2023 in Sharm El-Sheikh, the Minister of International Cooperation met with the Minister for International Development and Africa of the United Kingdom, Andrew Mitchell, where they discussed developments in the Climate Finance Accelerator (CFA), which was launched in cooperation with the United Kingdom, in light of joint efforts to support emerging companies and innovative solutions in the field. Climate Action, worth 10 million pounds sterling, to advance climate action, and cooperate with governments in middle-income countries to stimulate increased climate financing, through joint work between financing providers, experts, and those concerned with climate action.


United States of America

The continued cooperation with the United States Agency for International Development comes under the umbrella of the strategic partnership between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the United States of America, which extends over the past decades and whose results are reflected in the programs and projects implemented in many vital sectors, including basic education, higher education, health, and governance. Supporting small and medium enterprises, tourism and agriculture, and stimulating the private sector.

At the end of 2022, the Ministry of International Cooperation, with the United States Agency for International Development, signed grants worth $160 million, within the framework of joint economic relations between Egypt and the United States Agency for International Development, which enhances development cooperation in several fields, and is consistent with the state’s development vision. The agreements varied to serve the various sectors of the state, for example, the Egyptian-American Initiative for Higher Education, stimulating trade and investment in Egypt, developing agricultural and rural businesses and increasing income, in addition to the climate change initiative agreement worth $15 million, in addition to other agreements in the field of basic education and health.

Currently, a number of projects are being implemented in cooperation between the concerned authorities and the US Agency, and they are consistent with the presidential initiative for integrated development of the Egyptian countryside, “A Decent Life,” as 7 projects are being implemented in 17 governorates, out of 20 governorates targeted by the initiative, and the projects vary in the areas of water management solutions. Developing agricultural businesses in the Egyptian countryside, empowering women and supporting women entrepreneurs, the economic and social empowerment program for women, supporting literacy for children and mothers, and the family planning program.

It is worth noting that the development cooperation portfolio between the government and the United States Agency for International Development has amounted to about $1 billion since 2014, within the scope of which many projects and programs are being implemented in the fields of basic education, higher education, small and medium-sized companies, private sector support, tourism, and agriculture.

Canada

Since 1976, Egyptian-Canadian development cooperation relations have developed, with total aid and technical support over this period amounting to approximately CA$1.22 billion, including $567.6 million in the form of grants, and the remaining value as soft development financing.

In 2023, the Minister of International Cooperation, with Louis Dumas, the Canadian Ambassador to Cairo, signed a grant agreement worth CA$10 million, to enhance food security efforts and combat climate change through the project “Promoting climate-smart agriculture and agricultural biodiversity to support adaptive capacity in the most rural communities.” affected by climate changes in the old and new lands of the Nile Delta and Upper Egypt,” within the framework of integration with the Egyptian government’s efforts to implement the NWFE program, the pillar of the link between water, food, and energy projects. The project is scheduled to be implemented in cooperation between national bodies, including the Ministries of Environment, Agriculture and Local Development, the National Council for Women, and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).


A New Phase of Cooperation with Asia

China

The Arab Republic of Egypt and the People's Republic of China have a long-term historical relationship, as the two countries are among the most important, oldest and most ancient civilizations in the world, and the areas of development cooperation with the Chinese side are diverse at the level of soft development financing and technical support in various sectors.

Since 2014, Egyptian relations have witnessed an unprecedented boom based on the comprehensive strategic partnership agreement signed by Mr. President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, and the Chinese President, Mr. Xi Jinping, during the visit to the Chinese capital, Beijing, which is the agreement that regulates all aspects of bilateral relations between the two countries in various fields, especially economic, trade and investment.

The cooperation portfolio with the State of China amounts to about $1.7 billion to implement many projects in various development sectors, including electricity, health, education, vocational training, and others. During the year 2022, technical cooperation for capacity building and human resources development was strengthened with the Chinese side through the implementation of approximately 301 training programs in the fields of agriculture, trade, industry, electricity, communications, transportation, solidarity, health, planning, youth, sports, finance, culture and petroleum, as well as the Egyptian Space Agency, the General Investment Authority and the Suez Canal Authority.

In 2021, the Minister of International Cooperation and the Ambassador of the People's Republic of China to Cairo signed a new economic and technical cooperation agreement, within the framework of joint development efforts and strategic relations between the two countries. Through the new agreement, a number of development grants will be made available that will benefit priority sectors. In the country, to promote Egypt’s Vision 2030.

During the Ministry of International Cooperation’s participation in the International Action for Development Forum in China during the year 2023, several memorandums of understanding were signed that enhance the prospects for future cooperation with China, between the Minister of International Cooperation, H.E. Dr. Rania A. Al-Mashat, and the head of the Chinese agency, the following documents: -

Memorandum of Understanding “Global Development Initiative” to strengthen the Egyptian-Chinese partnership and work to formulate an integrated strategy for development cooperation between Egypt and China for a period of 3-5 years for the first time in light of the common relations between the two countries, including the areas and projects that will be implemented through the development cooperation program.

Signing cooperation documents to provide Chinese grants to supply equipment for mobile security vehicle systems to the Ministry of Transport, establishing a vocational training center in the Suez Canal Economic Zone, and preparing a feasibility study for the third level biosafety laboratory for the Ministry of Health.

Partnership with the New Development Bank (NBD)

The New Development Bank is a multilateral development bank established by the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) in 2015 with the aim of promoting sustainable development and regional cooperation with investing in infrastructure projects in emerging economies. Since its establishment, the New Development Bank has approved financing for more than 90 projects with a total value of $32 billion. These projects have helped improve transportation, water supplies, energy and other infrastructure in developing countries.

In 2023, Egypt officially joined the bank along with other countries, joining the list of major emerging countries. In May 2023, the Minister of International Cooperation participated in the annual meetings of the New Development Bank (NBD), in its eighth session, which was held at its headquarters in Shanghai, China, under the slogan “Shaping a new era for global development,” in light of efforts to strengthen development cooperation relations with partners. Multilateral and bilateral development, and promoting the national development vision that is consistent with the United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals.

Egypt's membership in the New Development Bank enhances the efforts made by the Egyptian government to promote development and achieve integration of efforts with emerging economies and developing countries, to mobilize the necessary resources to finance infrastructure and sustainable development projects.

The Minister of International Cooperation holds the position of Egypt's alternate governor in the New Development Bank, and Egypt's joining the bank reflects the commitment to working with international partners to promote development and an opportunity to discuss Egypt's development priorities with other leaders, and explore ways of cooperation in future projects.

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)

Since its establishment, the Asian Bank has expanded its support for green, resilient and sustainable infrastructure sectors, and as a founding member from outside the continent of Asia, Egypt has launched comprehensive, strong and unique partnerships with the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank over a period of eight years, valuing the close partnership with the AIIB in implementing water and energy projects, within the NWFE program, which is a partnership that builds on the tireless efforts made since 2016.

The development cooperation portfolio of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in Egypt amounts to about $1.3 billion, including $300 million in water management, $360 million to support the budget, €250 million to launch the Abu Qir electric metro, and $210 million to finance 11 private sector companies in Egypt. The field of renewable energy, and a $150 million credit line to the National Bank of Egypt.

In light of strengthening South-South cooperation, and complementing Egypt’s efforts to become a member of the New Development Bank, the formulation of a strategy for cooperation with Egypt is currently being discussed. toFinancing priority projects in the field of infrastructure in general, especially green projects and technological infrastructure, financing projects related to productive sectors and projects that enhance connectivity and communication between countries, and supporting and empowering the private sector.

South Korea

South Korea is considered one of Egypt's most important Asian development partners, as economic relations began in 1987. The size of the development cooperation portfolio amounts to $1.3 billion, including about $85 million in development grants through the Korean International Cooperation Agency (KOIKA) in the fields of higher education, intellectual property, and training. vocational, information technology, establishing an electronic system for government procurement, women’s economic empowerment, and combating violence; While soft development funds vary in the areas of railways, manufacturing of subway train cars, programs for transferring expertise and knowledge, and programs for developing the capabilities of government cadres.

In 2021, South Korea chose Egypt to be a strategic partner in the development cooperation plans during the period from 2022-2026, and during the visit of the Korean President to Egypt in early 2022, and his meeting with President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, Egypt and South Korea signed a memorandum of understanding worth $1 billion within the framework of development cooperation. between the two countries for the period 2022-2026.

The strategic pillars for the next four years within the framework of cooperation between Egypt and South Korea are based on the following:

- Achieving macroeconomic stability, enhancing industrial competitiveness, and creating job opportunities.

- Achieving green growth, enhancing energy security, and reducing carbon emissions.

- Establishing innovation and knowledge exchange systems based on information infrastructure between the two countries.

- Raising the efficiency of the government apparatus and creating digital systems to improve the transparency of government work.

- Integrating adaptation and mitigation measures into government policies.

- Improving the efficiency of transportation networks and railway signaling systems.

- Improving the efficiency of vocational training and technical education in Egypt by increasing the number of graduates who are trained to become skilled workers.

Egyptian-Japanese Partnership

The first meeting of the Egyptian-Japanese Joint Committee was held in 1983, in Cairo, and joint relations witnessed a boom over the decades at all levels. A technical cooperation agreement was signed to implement general and specialized training programmes, workshops and scholarships, and the implementation of many Japanese grant and loan projects began in several sectors. Development, especially in the areas of health, agriculture, small and medium industries, renewable energy, electricity, and infrastructure.

Joint relations witnessed a qualitative leap during the era of President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, as the late Japanese Prime Minister, Mr. Shinzo Abe, visited Egypt in 2015, followed by the visit of President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi to Tokyo in 2016, upon which advanced steps were taken to begin a new phase of bilateral relations. And launching several initiatives for joint cooperation in the fields of education, health, electricity and infrastructure.

Japan is one of the most important Asian development partners for Egypt, as the development cooperation portfolio includes more than 18 development projects in support of the government’s plan to achieve sustainable development goals, with a value of approximately $3.9 billion, from 2010 until now, in addition to many development grants in the fields of Health, education, energy, electricity, transportation, civil aviation, tourism, antiquities, irrigation, and education, in a way that supports sustainable economic growth, social inclusion, education development, human resources development, regional cooperation, and support of the national strategy to combat climate change.

Within the framework of the coordination role of the Ministry of International Cooperation to discuss ways to enhance the Egyptian-Japanese partnership through economic diplomacy efforts, an annual high-level policy dialogue is held between the Egyptian and Japanese sides to discuss proposals for future cooperation and technical cooperation, in line with the development pillars and Egypt’s Vision 2030, in In light of the role played by the Ministry of International Cooperation to coordinate between government agencies and multilateral and bilateral development partners.


Vietnam

Egyptian-Vietnamese relations go back to the 1960s, and in 1997 an agreement was signed to form a joint committee between the two countries to enhance economic cooperation. Vietnam is one of the founding members of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.

The strength of relations between the two countries was evident in the visit of President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi to the Republic of Vietnam as the first visit by an Egyptian president in 2017, followed by the visit of the late President Tran Dai Quang to the Arab Republic of Egypt in 2018. The two visits were an affirmation of the strength and durability of relations and witnessed the signing of about 17 cooperation documents between the two countries. In the fields of investment, tourism, culture, energy, exports and other vital fields.

Last July, the Minister of International Cooperation held a session of discussions with the Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Vietnam, Tran Le Quang, during his visit to Egypt at the head of a high-level delegation in the first visit by officials from the Vietnamese government since the Corona pandemic, where the meeting witnessed a discussion of strengthening joint cooperation relations between the two countries in various fields. 

The visit reflects the endeavor to expand the scope of joint work between the two countries in all fields based on the strength and durability of the relations that began in 1963, as it coincided with the sixtieth anniversary of the start of diplomatic relations between the two countries, which constitutes an opportunity to move towards a new phase based on the development priorities of the two countries to enhance economic cooperation. Especially in light of the challenges faced by all countries of the world.